A sign is something other people, like a doctor, notice while a symptom is something that the patient describes. Example is the case of dilated pupils being a sign while constant sleepiness is a symptom.
Substance dependence is when someone is addicted to a something like drugs or alcohol and they are not able to control their use of the substance. Even if the substance poses a danger, they will still take it whether or not they know the dangers.
Drug addiction can lead to strong cravings. The fanatic might need to surrender (quit), yet discovers it to a great degree hard to do as such without offer assistance.
The clues and indicators that someone is addicted differ from one person to the other, depend on the drug, the genes of the individual and status in life.
The clues and indicators of addiction could be that:
It becomes difficult for the person to desist from using the substance - like drug, alcohol or nicotine, even when the person has attempted to stop at least on one occasion.
Withdrawal side effects - when body levels of that substance go beneath a specific level the patient has physical and disposition related manifestations. There are desires, episodes of grouchiness, awful temper, poor concentration, a sentiment being discouraged, purge, disappointment, outrage, severity and disdain.
The person may also develop a voracious appetite. Withdrawal also comes with insomnia. Constant vomiting and constipation may also occur in some situations. Depending on the substance, withdrawal might also cause violence, tremors, seizures, hallucinations, and sweating.
Even with the knowledge that health problems exist, addiction continues - The person keeps taking the substance on a regular basis, even though negative health problems are becoming apparent. For instance, a smoker may keep smoking even after a lung or heart condition prevails.
Recreational or social sacrifices - because of the substance addiction, some actions are forfeited. To give an example, an alcoholic might decline an invitation to spend a day on a boat or to go camping when no alcohol is at hand, a smoker might choose not to meet with friends in a pub/restaurant that prohibits smoking.
Keeping a good reserve - addicts will at all times ensure that they have a good reserve of the substance, even when they do not have a lot of cash. To ensure that the substance is as abundant as possible, sacrifices may be made to the household's budget.
Taking risks (1) - some of the addicts may go as far as prostituting or stealing in the bid to raise money for the substance.
Dangers of Addiction (2) - When the addict is on the drug, they may take bold actions like over speeding.
Coping with problems - an addict often feels like they cannot deal with their problems unless they are using.
Fixation - an addict may spend more energy and time concentrating on manners of to get his/her drug, and in certain instances on how to use the drug.
Secrecy and solitude - often, addicts will take their substance alone and in secret.
Forswearing - a critical number of individuals who are dependent on a substance are trying to claim ignorance. Either they do not realise or outright deny they have a problem.
Excess consumption - in addictions involving alcohol and some substance, the addict uses in excess. The effects can be physical symptoms, like a bad lasting cough (in the case of heavy smokers) and a sore throat, or blackouts (fail to remember moments).
Neglecting leisure and pastime activities - as the addiction takes its toll, the person might abandon activities that used to be important to him. Some smokers who will discover that it is no longer easy for them to cope with the physical demands of their favourite sports may also resort to this.
Having stashes - hiding some portions of the abused substance in the car or some place in the house may become the case for some persons.
Taking an underlying substantial measurements - this is basic with liquor abuse. Huge volumes of drink may be taken at once in the bid to get high and enjoy the feeling.
Legal problems - problems with the law occur more with drug and alcohol addictions. It may be because the individual cannot judge right, thus do things they normally won't do, or deliberately do something unlawful to obtain the substance.
Financial difficulties - the addicts will be willing to pay whatever it costs to access the substance if the substance is expensive. For instance, in most of the western world a packet of twenty cigarettes costs more than '11, if an addict smokes two packs a day, they will need '660 monthly and about '8,000 annually.
Relationship issues - these problems are more typical with alcohol or drug dependency.
Some people who abuse drugs or alcohol might not be technically addicted but can still suffer the effects mentioned here but do not usually suffer from withdrawal symptoms or have the same obsession to use the substance.